The concept of musical style
Gradually, albeit slowly, the content of music, its genres, forms, means of expression are enriched. In Western Europe VI-VII centuries. a strictly regulated system of one-band (monodic) church music (Gregorian singing), combining recitation (psalmody) ipenation (hymns), is taking shape. At the turn of the 1 st and 2 nd millennia, a large voice is born. New vocal (choral) and vocal-instrumental (choir and organ) genres are formed: organum, motet, conduct, then a mass. The first composer’s (creative) school was formed in France in the XII century at the Assembly of Notre Dame (Leonin, Perotin). At the turn of the Renaissance (French style and Italy, XIV century), in professional music, a single voice is supplanted by a many voices, music begins to gradually become free from purely practical functions (serving church rites), it increases the meaning of young men, including song (Gil de Mashaux).
Music of the Renaissance. The Renaissance is an epoch in the history of European culture, characterized by major economic and socio-political transformations, the flowering of secular humanistic thought, great scientific and geographical discoveries, the revival of ancient cultural heritage. In Italy – 14-16 centuries., In other countries of Western and Central Europe – middle. 15-16 centuries. There are different points of view on the historical boundaries of the musical Renaissance. The most well-established is the idea of the 1st floor. 15 in. how about the actual beginning of the Renaissance in music and the 2nd floor. 16th century as its final stage (the work of Palestrina, O. Lasso, composers of the Venetian school, late Italian madrigalists, first opera composers). In connection with the transition from the medieval theocentric culture to the anthropocentric culture, essential changes took place in the musical art. As in other types of art, the tendency to reflect the diversity of the world, which was combined with the desire for perfect coordination, harmony, proportionality of all the elements of the whole, has unusually increased. The beginning of music printing, the new conditions for the existence of music (the emergence of a democratic public, the flourishing of amateur music-making) led to a rethinking of its social status. The role of secular genres has increased (frotteola, villanella, vilyansico, chanson, Lied, madrigal, madrigal comedy, at the end of the 16th century – opera, ballet), instrumental music became independent (choral processing, richercar, canzone, improvisational pieces – preludes, tokkaty, fantasy) , interest in dance art was revived (the emergence of numerous dance genres, musical dance meetings, special guides and first professional dance masters). The intonational content of traditional church genres, Mass and Motet, also changed.
Baroque music. Baroque (Italian. Barocco, letters. – quaint, arrogant, strange; there are different versions of the origin of this term: 1) from the Portuguese. perola barocca – a pearl of irregular shape; 2) from lat. bároco – designation of one of the types of syllogism in scholastic logic; 3) on behalf of ital. artist F. Barocci, F. Barocci, (15287-1612) – artistic style in European art and literature of the end of the 16-1th floor. 18th century At the end of the 16th century optimistic the humanism of the Renaissance is replaced by a tragic worldview associated with the reflection in the minds of people of the heightened contradictions of economic, political and public life that led to the 17th century. to the beginning of the bourgeois revolution. With the emergence of the Baroque style, music for the first time fully demonstrated its possibilities for the in-depth and multilateral embodiment of the world of human emotional experiences. Musical and theatrical genres (primarily opera) were promoted to the leading position, which was determined by the characteristic Baroque desire for dramatic expression and synthesis of various types of art, also manifested in the field of religious music (spiritual oratorio, cantata, passive). At the same time, there was a tendency to separate music from the word – to the intensive development of numerous instrumental genres, largely associated with Baroque aesthetics. Baroque style is most pronounced in Italy. In the beginning. 18th century in Germany, in the historical fate of which the tragic contradictions of the epoch were particularly pronounced, two great composers, JS Bach and GF Handel, came to the fore, whose work was closely associated with the Baroque style. However, summing up and deepening the achievements of the past and foreshadowing the future of European music, it does not fit into the framework of any one style.
Rococo (French rococo, from rocaille – an ornamental motif, letters. – fragments of stones, shells for building decoration) – style in European art 1st floor. 18 century., Developed primarily in France. Rococo most clearly affected in the visual arts (F. Bush, A. Watteau) and the decorative design of palace interiors (mannered pretentiousness and whimsical lines in furnishings, sophistication, an abundance of ornamental drawings in wall paintings, etc.).